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This interactive uses the following sources to model and simulate expected energy needs, costs and emissions. It takes into account reasonable expectations for U.S. GDP growth, population growth and improvements in technology. It is not an exacting scientific projection.

Energy Needs


Energy Costs

Department of Energy: Energy Information Administration: Total Primary Energy Consumption Bilek, Hardy, Lenzen and Dey: Life-cycle energy balance and greenhouse gas emissions of nuclear energy: a review Levelized Energy Costs computed by Marcial T. Ocampo:
Model for projecting energy needs by Nathan S. Lewis and Daniel G. Nocera: Powering the Planet: Chemical Challenges in Solar Energy Utilization Fridleifsson, Bertani, Huenges, Lund, Ragnarsson and Rybach: The possible role and contribution of geothermal energy to the mitigation of climate change (pdf)
Meier: Lifecycle assessment of electricity generation systems and applications for climate change policy analysis (pdf)